Ý N E B O L U
Inebolu is located at the centre of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. It’s 590 km far from Istanbul over the highway and 89 kilometres north of Kastamonu. It is a typical Black Sea port town exhibiting fine examples of traditional Turkish architecture in the midst of greenery and beautiful gardens.
It is a small city with less than 10,000 inhabitants.
The history of Inebolu
The exact foundation date of Inebolu is unknown, however given the local castle ruins, it may be assumed that Inebolu was founded by Milets as a coastal colony in the district of Boyranalti.
Inebolu was first called "Ionopolis." As understood from the name, Inebolu was one of the Ionian cities. Over the years, the name "Ionopolis" has changed to "Inepolis" and then to "Inebolu."
Some historians claim that Inebolu was founded by Gasgas in 1200 B.C. Inebolu was a sub-district of the today's city Kure (approx. 30 km to interior) in 1834, and became a district in it's own right in 1867.
During the Independence War, arms and ammunition were transferred to Anatolia through Inebolu. The town was attacked by the enemies during the Independence War. Inebolu defended it’s unity with determination, and was honoured with the Independence Medal by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
Ataturk initiated reforms relating to civilized clothes in Inebolu, he made his well-known speech about hat reform in this town.
In accordance with the exchange agreements (between the new Turkish Republic of 1923 and the states concerned in mutuality) and after their proclamation the Greek inhabitants have moved to Greece for resettlement.
Historical traces in Inebolu
The remainders of a castle:
Archaeologically, today there is nothing left in Inebolu, except the castle ruins. One of the three most important ruins in Boyran. This castle is divided in two parts on the inside as well as on the outside. The east wall of the external castle extends from Inebolu-River, over the Abas hill up to the quarter called Avara. The ruins of the fortress walls, which are in the environment of the cemeteries on the Abas hills, show this also. No one knows where the east wall joins to the north wall. A part of the north wall of the interior castle, which extends from the east to the west, still stands. These walls are 3 meters wide and 6 meters high. In the year 1952 20 meters of these walls remained. The interior castle was nearly completely destroyed and nothing was left from the west wall.
The second castle stood where today the Karadeniz primary school is. Still a few parts of the walls are here to be seen.
The third castle is on the Gerisch hill, from where you can see the whole region of Inebolu. It is located south of the city and of considerable height. There are ruins of a monastery; the year of construction is not known. Only some parts of the walls, large main entrance stairs, baptize basin and a well remain. The Greeks living in Inebolu, would celebrate 15 August on this hill as feast.
Treasure-hunters, who were after buried treasures of the Greeks who left the town in 1923, have made lots of excavations and damaged the area completely. The monastery and its premises were very alive in those days. You may still feel it there when you close your eyes and start dreaming.
Location and situation
Inebolu is located exactly in the middle of the Black Sea coast. It is 89 km north of the very old provincial capital Kastamonu. There are small towns around, in the east there are Abana and Bozkurt, in the west Cide and in the south Devrekani and Küre. Parallel to the coastline there are the Küre mountains and the larger Isfendiyar mountains. The coastline around Inebolu is very narrow. Flat zones are rare. The sea is very steep and deep. Short before the coast of Inebolu the sea depth lies around 200 m. Inebolu possesses a few sandy beaches around, however they are not very large.
Brooks and rivers in Inebolu
The rivers come down from high mountains to Inebolu and its surroundings. They flow from there into the large Black Sea. They rise from steep hills of the Isfendiyar mountains. The ways of the rivers are irregular, deep, strong and also sometimes very wild. Some of the important rivers around Inebolu are:
1. Doganyurt Cayi (Cayi = river/brook)
2. Koyran Cayi
3. Ozluce Cayi
4. Kizilkara Cayi
5. Manastir Cayi
6. Akliyaman Cayi
7. Gemiciler Cayi
8. Kure Iki Cayi
The hills around Inebolu
Around the city are hills about 400 m to 1200 m height. Well-known is the Geris hill (Geris Tepesi),which is 495 meters high and in the southwest the Islam hill 589 m high. Other hills are :
1. In the east, Darica hill
2. In the west, Abas hill (1261 m)
3. More in the west, Kelestiren hill (1260 m)
4. In the east, Manastir hill (789 m)
5. In the southwest, Cuha hill
6. In the southeast, Yukari Bozu hill (389 m)
Inebolu has a Black Sea climate. In the winter days the temperature does not fall below 6 °C. The warmest months in the Summer are July and August. In a period of 49 years 6.6°C has been recorded as the coolest and 21°C as warmest monthly average.The annual average temperature is approx.15° C. It snows very hard during the winter, but it melts rapidly due to the strong wind.
There are Mediterranean plants around Inebolu. They begin directly at the coast and go deeply to inside of the country. It is very affected by the maritime climate and the down-falling fog. Up to 1250 meters you can see all kind of pine trees. The region is wooded very thickly.
Before the reestablishment of Turkey Inebolu was the opening door to the east from the sea. At that time there were also many dealers and businessmen. A Chamber of Commerce was founded in the year of 1887 in Inebolu. At that time it had 2500 registered members and 1000 of them were independent craftsmen. It shows that Inebolu was one of the important commercial metropolises at that time. With the progress of the traffic route around Kastamonu, Inebolu has lost it’s importance.
Only a wood industry has remained of the many industrial activities from an earlier age.
Due to the soil conditions regular agriculture is difficult. Fruit, wheat, corn and similar are cultivated. Some 6-7 km from the coast there are thick forests and grasslands, therefore you see cattle breeding.
Vegetable and fruit
Tomatoes, beans and paprika are the most popular vegetables growing in Inebolu. As fruits there are famous Inebolu chestnuts, pears, mulberries, figs, walnuts, hazelnuts et cetera.
The variety of the plantation (also wild flowers and herbs) and the conditions of the climate enable beekeeping. Consumption of honey is large and Inebolu honey is very well-known in the country.
In 1986 a co-operative was created for fishery. Depending on the season you will find the following kinds of fish in Inebolu: Hamsi (Anchovy), Kalkan (Turbot), Mezgit (Whiting), Istavrit (Horse mackerel), Kefal (Grey Mullet), Cinekop (Medium-size bluefish), Luefer (Bluefish), Palamut (Bonito/Tunny), Uskumru (Mackerel), Vatoz (Thornback ray), Zargana (Garfish) et cetera.
In Inebolu forestry is of great importance. There are 67,210 hectares of forest. 39,095 hectares are mixed woodland, where you will find beech, black fir, oak, birch tree, pine etc. 7,675 hectares are wild forest. 25,778 hectares are controlled forest and trees.
The export of wood products abroad multiplied from the year 1985 to 1996 by 250 %. In 1986 20 wood processing enterprises were counted. They continue to sell their wood products to Istanbul and abroad.
Traditional Houses in Inebolu
Living examples of the Ottoman style of traditional Turkish Houses are still to be find in Inebolu. By the end of the 19th century the people in Inebolu became rich with business and their improved wealth and taste made them build large houses on the two sides of the Ikýcay river which cuts the town in two pieces. By 1890 the town has hundreds of beautiful houses with a special architecture. The ground floor is made by stone and contains cellar and pantry. There are one or two floors more. Each floor has four rooms, one anteroom, kitchen and toilet. Each of the floors is built in such a way that by closing a door it can be converted into one independent flat. This feature was very useful for the families when they enlarge by marriage of their children. Married children continued to live in the same house, but on an independent floor. Each floor has also it’s own separate entrance from outside.
The rooms have many windows and each room has a corbel and framework which enables the women to look out to the street without being seen. The ceilings of the rooms are high and full with carving art. Hand-rails of the houses are one piece and made of wood. One room at each floor has a bathroom as a shower-cabin shape as used nowadays. Hot water was boiled in large buckets and brought to this special bathroom for washing.
The roof of the houses are covered with a special stone called “Marla” which are supplied from the sea. These stones are wide, thin and heavy. It has a great heat resistance and with it’s heavy weight it is very suitable against hard blowing north-east wind from the Black sea. Most of the houses still have this type stones on their roofs.
Each house has a garden and a well in this garden, which is used as refrigerator during the hot summer days. There are various fruit trees in the gardens, in particular plum, mulberry, apple, pear, hazelnuts and walnut trees.
The houses have a special claret red colour (asi boyasi = red ochre paint). This paint is a mineral pigment. It is not affected by sunlight. It contains oil and this give high resistance against atmospheric corrosive reactions. It covers very easily all kind of colours, so very easy to paint.
Travelling in and around Inebolu
Due to the mistake of the governments in Turkey unfortunately there isn’t any passenger boat sailing to Inebolu. However motorways and highways are sufficient and in good conditions. There are several private bus companies which have scheduled buses to/from Istanbul, Ankara and the provincial capital Kastamonu. The connection with nearby towns such Kure, Cide, Abana and Bozkurt is made by mini buses that again run on schedule, many times a day.
Hotels and accommodation
Hotels, motels, pensions rose to large numbers every year. The town has a capacity of 400 beds (year2002).
Here are the names of some places:
Yakamoz Motel : +90-366-811 4305 Fax: +90-366-811 3100
Turizm Uygulama Hotel : +90-366-811 5252
Öðretmen Evi Phone : +90-366-811 3260
Last Update: 16.1.2013 | Hit: 7756